What is known and what has been learned about Scutellaria bicalensis and Eleutherococcus senticosus radix? The following are excerpts from selected publications describing the research performed with Scutaellaria baicalensis and Eleuthrococcus senticosus. This is a small sample of the extensive work that has been accomplished by many researchers who were interested in these compounds. It is not our intention to introduce our own commentary with respect to their work, nor is it our intention to create a connection to our product. It is our intention to show that these herbals have undergone a great deal of scrutiny and that they have been proven to be safe for general use.
Phytochemicals of different chemical classes result in often complex mixtures typically containing many natural products and their derivatives. In phytotherapy it is believed that mixtures of active compounds act and have a concerted, multileveled molecular action . Thus,the different compounds present in herbal extracts potentially act in a synergistic and/or antagonistic manner on specific or multiple targets.  Williamson EM. Synergy and other interactions in phytomedicines. Phytomedicine2001;8(5):401-9.
PHARMACOLOGY: IN GENERAL
Scutellaria baicalensis (Baikul skullcap) and eleutherococcus senticosus (Siberian ginseng), have been used by natural medicine practitioners all over the world for hundreds of years. Phytochemicals of different chemical classes result in often-complex mixtures that typically contain many natural products and their derivatives. In phytotherapy, it is believed that mixtures of active compounds have a concerted, multilevel molecular action . Thus, the different compounds present in herbal extracts potentially act in a synergistic and/or antagonistic manner on specific or multiple targets .
These two ingredients have been studied and used for many years, with an excellent safety profile, and little to no adverse effects (see section on Dosage and Administration below). When adverse effects were reported, these were primarily related to their use as an adjuvant to chemotherapy.
MECHANISM OF ACTION
Dosage and Administration
Adult (age ≥18):
1. Williamson EM. Synergy and other interactions in phytomedicines. Phytomedicine2001;8(5):401-9.
2. Gasiorowski, K., Lamer-Zarawska, E., Leszek, J., Parvathaneni, K., Yendluri, B. B., Blach-Olszewska, Z., and Aliev, G. Flavones from root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi: drugs of the future in neurodegeneration? CNS.Neurol.Disord Drug Targets. 2011;10(2):184-191.
3. Yang, X., Huang, S., Chen, J., Song, N., Wang, L., Zhang, Z., Deng, G., Zheng, H., Zhu, X. Q., and Lu, F. Evaluation of the adjuvant properties of Astragalus membranaceus and Scutellaria baicalensis GEORGI in the immune protection induced by UV-attenuated Toxoplasma gondii in mouse models. Vaccine 1-8-2010;28(3):737-743.
4. Martin, J. and Dusek, J. [The Baikal scullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi)--a potential source of new drugs]. Ceska.Slov.Farm. 2002;51(6):277-283.
5. Wang, G. F., Wu, Z. F., Wan, L., Wang, Q. T., and Chen, F. M. Influence of baicalin on the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand in cultured human periodontal ligament cells. Pharmacology 2006;77(2):71-77.
6. Tsao, T. F., Newman, M. G., Kwok, Y. Y., and Horikoshi, A. K. Effect of Chinese and western antimicrobial agents on selected oral bacteria. J Dent Res 1982;61(9):1103-1106.
7. Tan, H., Tang, Y., Zhou, X., Xiao, X., and Li, J. [Effect of Radix scutellariae on the growth and form of Porphyromanus endodontics in vitro]. Sichuan.Da.Xue.Xue.Bao.Yi.Xue.Ban. 2003;34(3):504-506.
8. Yang, D., Hu, H., Huang, S., Chaumont, J. P., and Millet, J. [Study on the inhibitory activity, in vitro, of baicalein and baicalin against skin fungi and bacteria]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 2000;23(5):272-274.
9. Hao, H., Aixia, Y., Dan, L., Lei, F., Nancai, Y., and Wen, S. Baicalin suppresses expression of Chlamydia protease-like activity factor in Hep-2 cells infected by Chlamydia trachomatis. Fitoterapia 2009;80(7):448-452.
10. Hao, H., Aixia, Y., Lei, F., Nancai, Y., and Wen, S. Effects of baicalin on Chlamydia trachomatis infection in vitro. Planta Med 2010;76(1):76-78.
11. Wong, K. S. and Tsang, W. K. In vitro antifungal activity of the aqueous extract of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi root against Candida albicans. Int J Antimicrob.Agents 2009;34(3):284-285.
12. Zhu, G., Li, C., and Cao, Z. Inhibitory effect of flavonoid baicalin on degranulation of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes induced by interleukin-8: potential role in periodontal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol. 1-19-2007;109(2):325-330.
13. Wu, J. Y., Chung, K. T., Liu, Y. W., Lu, F. J., Tsai, R. S., Chen, C. H., and Chen, C. H. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel C(6) modified baicalein derivatives as antioxidative agents. J Agric Food Chem 4-23-2008;56(8):2838-2845.
14. Mu, X., He, G., Cheng, Y., Li, X., Xu, B., and Du, G. Baicalein exerts neuroprotective effects in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced experimental parkinsonism in vivo and in vitro. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2009;92(4):642-648.
15. Zhao, M., Zhou, Z. T., and Zhang, W. D. [Antifugal susceptibility testing and antifugal traditional Chinese medicines screening of oral Candida isolated from head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy or chemotherapy]. Hua Xi.Kou Qiang.Yi.Xue.Za Zhi 2006;24(2):131-134.
16. Ren S, Cao D., Yang J, and et al. Bacteriostatic activity of combined application of Galla chinensis, Scutellaria baicalensis and Rhizoma coptidis against MRSA in vitro. Journal of China Pharmacy 2010;21.
17. Kim, D. S., Son, E. J., Kim, M., Heo, Y. M., Nam, J. B., Ro, J. Y., and Woo, S. S. Antiallergic herbal composition from Scutellaria baicalensis and Phyllostachys edulis. Planta Med 2010;76(7):678-682.
18. Kim, B. R., Kim, D. H., Park, R., Kwon, K. B., Ryu, D. G., Kim, Y. C., Kim, N. Y., Jeong, S., Kang, B. K., and Kim, K. S. Effect of an extract of the root of Scutellaria baicalensis and its flavonoids on aflatoxin B1 oxidizing cytochrome P450 enzymes. Planta Med 2001;67(5):396-399.
19. Zhou, J., Qu, F., Zhang, H. J., Zhuge, X. H., and Cheng, L. Z. Comparison of anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Curcuma wenyujin Y.H. Chen et C. Ling and Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Afr J Tradit.Complement Altern Med 2010;7(4):339-349.
20. Kim, E. H., Shim, B., Kang, S., Jeong, G., Lee, J. S., Yu, Y. B., and Chun, M. Anti-inflammatory effects of Scutellaria baicalensis extract via suppression of immune modulators and MAP kinase signaling molecules. J Ethnopharmacol. 11-12-2009;126(2):320-331.
21. Yoon, S. B., Lee, Y. J., Park, S. K., Kim, H. C., Bae, H., Kim, H. M., Ko, S. G., Choi, H. Y., Oh, M. S., and Park, W. Anti-inflammatory effects of Scutellaria baicalensis water extract on LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. J Ethnopharmacol. 9-7-2009;125(2):286-290.
22. Burnett, B. P., Jia, Q., Zhao, Y., and Levy, R. M. A medicinal extract of Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu acts as a dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase to reduce inflammation. J Med Food 2007;10(3):442-451.
23. Krakauer, T., Li, B. Q., and Young, H. A. The flavonoid baicalin inhibits superantigen-induced inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. FEBS Lett. 6-29-2001;500(1-2):52-55.
24. Chen, C. S., Chen, N. J., Lin, L. W., Hsieh, C. C., Chen, G. W., and Hsieh, M. T. Effects of Scutellariae Radix on gene expression in HEK 293 cells using cDNA microarray. J Ethnopharmacol. 5-24-2006;105(3):346-351.
25. Chang, Y. L., Shen, J. J., Wung, B. S., Cheng, J. J., and Wang, D. L. Chinese herbal remedy wogonin inhibits monocyte chemotactic protein-1 gene expression in human endothelial cells. Mol Pharmacol 2001;60(3):507-513.
26. Li, B. Q., Fu, T., Gong, W. H., Dunlop, N., Kung, H., Yan, Y., Kang, J., and Wang, J. M. The flavonoid baicalin exhibits anti-inflammatory activity by binding to chemokines. Immunopharmacology 2000;49(3):295-306.
27. Woo, K. J., Lim, J. H., Suh, S. I., Kwon, Y. K., Shin, S. W., Kim, S. C., Choi, Y. H., Park, J. W., and Kwon, T. K. Differential inhibitory effects of baicalein and baicalin on LPS-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression through inhibition of C/EBPbeta DNA-binding activity. Immunobiology 2006;211(5):359-368.
28. Kimura, Y., Matsushita, N., and Okuda, H. Effects of baicalein isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis on interleukin 1 beta- and tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced adhesion molecule expression in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 1997;57(1):63-67.
29. Lee, B. S., Shim, S. M., Heo, J., Pae, H. O., Seo, B. Y., Han, S. Y., Sohn, D. H., Jang, S. I., and Chung, H. T. Wogonin suppresses TARC expression induced by mite antigen via heme oxygenase 1 in human keratinocytes. Suppressive effect of wogonin on mite antigen-induced TARC expression. J Dermatol Sci 2007;46(1):31-40.
30. Lixuan, Z., Jingcheng, D., Wenqin, Y., Jianhua, H., Baojun, L., and Xiaotao, F. Baicalin attenuates inflammation by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation in cigarette smoke induced inflammatory models. Pulm.Pharmacol Ther 2010;23(5):411-419.
31. Li, B. Q., Fu, T., Yan, Y. D., Baylor, N. W., Ruscetti, F. W., and Kung, H. F. Inhibition of HIV infection by baicalin–a flavonoid compound purified from Chinese herbal medicine. Cell Mol Biol Res 1993;39(2):119-124.
32. Li, B. Q., Fu, T., Dongyan, Y., Mikovits, J. A., Ruscetti, F. W., and Wang, J. M. Flavonoid baicalin inhibits HIV-1 infection at the level of viral entry. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 9-24-2000;276(2):534-538.
33. Hu, J. Z., Bai, L., Chen, D. G., Xu, Q. T., and Southerland, W. M. Computational investigation of the anti-HIV activity of Chinese medicinal formula Three-Huang Powder. Interdiscip.Sci 2010;2(2):151-156.
34. Wu, J. A., Attele, A. S., Zhang, L., and Yuan, C. S. Anti-HIV activity of medicinal herbs: usage and potential development. Am J Chin Med 2001;29(1):69-81.
35. Fu, J., Cao, H., Wang, N., Zheng, X., Lu, Y., Liu, X., Yang, D., Li, B., Zheng, J., and Zhou, H. An anti-sepsis monomer, 2′,5,6′,7-tetrahydroxyflavanonol (THF), identified from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi neutralizes lipopolysaccharide in vitro and in vivo. Int Immunopharmacol. 12-10-2008;8(12):1652-1657.
36. Blach-Olszewska, Z., Jatczak, B., Rak, A., Lorenc, M., Gulanowski, B., Drobna, A., and Lamer-Zarawska, E. Production of cytokines and stimulation of resistance to viral infection in human leukocytes by Scutellaria baicalensis flavones. J Interferon Cytokine Res 2008;28(9):571-581.
37. Huang, R. L., Chen, C. C., Huang, H. L., Chang, C. G., Chen, C. F., Chang, C., and Hsieh, M. T. Anti-hepatitis B virus effects of wogonin isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis. Planta Med 2000;66(8):694-698.
38. Tseng, Y. P., Wu, Y. C., Leu, Y. L., Yeh, S. F., and Chou, C. K. Scutellariae radix suppresses hepatitis B virus production in human hepatoma cells. Front Biosci.(Elite.Ed) 2010;2:1538-1547.
MECHANISM OF ACTION
General: Several reviews discuss the antioxidant, antistress, antiulcer, anti-irradiation, anticancer, antifatigue, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, cardioprotective, wound-healing, and hepatoprotective activities of Siberian ginseng [1-3]
The effect of Siberian ginseng on immunological endpoints has been investigated in various groups, including athletes, healthy individuals, and cancer patients. In two clinical trials [4,5] and one combination study (containing Leuzea carthamoides, Rhodiola rosea, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and fruits of Schizandra chinensis) , Siberian ginseng showed stimulatory effects on T helper cells, immunoglobulin levels, and natural killer cells. No effect was found in a third study . The methodological quality of most studies was low. Further research using well-designed clinical trials is required before conclusions can be made.
Evidence: Gaffney et al. conducted a randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of Siberian ginseng with Panax ginseng and placebo on immune response in competitive endurance athletes engaged in their normal training . Ten matched groups of participants were included (N=30). Participants were included if they had at least two years of endurance training experience, had trained on average at least five hours weekly for the previous three months, were between the ages of 18 and 40 years, did not use medications likely to affect the dependent variables, were training in preparation for competition within the season that the study was undertaken, and were in a group of three training partners matched for training volume and intensity. According to the authors, training partners were considered to be matched if they trained one or more times per week with the other two participants in their group. Subjects received a 35% ethanolic extract of Siberian ginseng (8mL daily, equivalent to 4g of dried root), or a 60% ethanolic extract of Panax ginseng (4mL daily, equivalent to 2g of dried root diluted to the same volume as Siberian ginseng), or placebo. Endpoints included stress hormones (cortisol and testosterone) and immunological markers (B lymphocytes, T cells, and CD4, CD8, and natural killer cells). Treatment had no effect on Bohn et al. conducted a placebo controlled study to examine the effect of a Siberian ginseng extract (Eleu-kokk ®) on immune system function in 36 healthy volunteers . Volunteers received 10mL of an ethanolic extract (vincamine-free) of Siberian ginseng or placebo (wine) three times daily for four weeks. The main endpoint was cellular immune status, as determined by quantitative flow cytometry. Siberian ginseng use resulted in an increase in the absolute number of immunocompetent cells, mainly T helper cells. There were also effects on cytotoxic and natural killer cells. There were no side effects observed over a six-month period. Additional details are currently lacking.
Dosage and Administration and Safety
Adult (age ≥18):
1. Zauski, D and Smolarz, H. D. Eleutherococcus senticosus – an exemplary adaptogenic plant. Postepy Fitoterapii Warszawa: Borgis Wydawnictwo Medyczne 2008;9(4):240-246.
2. Huang, L., Zhao, H., Huang, B., Zheng, C., Peng, W., and Qin, L. Acanthopanax senticosus: review of botany, chemistry and pharmacology. Pharmazie 2011;66(2):83-97.
3. Oates, L. Siberian ginseng: Eleutherococcus senticosus. J Complement Med 2008;7(4):44-47.
4. Bohn, B., Nebe, C. T., and Birr, C. Flow-cytometric studies with eleutherococcus senticosus extract as an immunomodulatory agent. Arzneimittelforschung. 1987;37(10):1193-1196.
5. Huang, D. B., Ran, R. Z., and Yu, Z. F. [Effect of Acanthopanax senticosus injection on the activities of human tumor necrosis factor and natural killer cell in blood in the patients with lung cancer]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2005;30(8):621-624.
6. Kormosh, N., Laktionov, K., and Antoshechkina, M. Effect of a combination of extract from several plants on cell-mediated and humoral immunity of patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Phytother Res 2006;20(5):424-425.
7. Gaffney, B. T., Hugel, H. M., and Rich, P. A. The effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes. Life Sci. 12-14-2001;70(4):431-442.
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 673145, 9 pages
A Herbal Composition of Scutellaria baicalensis Eleutherococcus senticosus Shows Potent Anti-Inflammatory Effects in an Ex Vivo Human Mucosal Tissue Model
1Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Upper Airway Research Laboratory (URL), Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
2Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Zhongshan City Peoples’s Hospital, Zhongshan 528403, China
Background. Patients seek an effective alternative to pharmacotherapy including herbal treatment options for allergic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis.
Material and Methods. Nasal mucosal tissue was obtained from 12 patients, fragmented, preincubated with tissue culture medium, S. baicalensis and/or E. senticosus and/or vitamin C (each compound 0.2 gμ/mL and 2 μg/mL) for 1 hour at 37°C/5% CO2, and stimulated with anti-IgE for 30 minutes and 6 hours to imitate the allergic early and late phases. Furthermore, Staphylococcus aureus superantigen B (SEB) stimulation for 6 hours was used to imitate T-cell activation.
Results. The combination of S. baicalensis and E. senticosus had a more potent suppressive effect on the release of PGD2, histamine, and IL-5 than S. baicalensis alone. The combination also resulted in a significant inhibition of SEB-induced cytokines comparable or superior to an established topical corticosteroid, fluticasone propionate. Vitamin C increased ciliary beat frequency, but had no anti-inflammatory effects.
Discussion. The combination of S. baicalensis and E. senticosus may be able to significantly block allergic early-and late-phase mediators and substantially suppress the release of proinflammatory, and Th1-, Th2-, and Th17—derived cytokines.